Your Ad Here

More on www.onlinenepal.tk

Your pictures and fotos in a slideshow on MySpace, eBay, Facebook or your website!view all pictures of this slideshow

www.onlinenepal.tk More on www.onlinenepal.tk

Thursday, October 8, 2009

WORLD ECONOMY


  • ECONOMY OF WORLD
    1.Nepal
    GDP (PPP)
    $39.14 billion

    GDP (OER)
    $6.655 billion

    GDP (RGR)
    2.7%

    GDP Per capita (PPP)
    $1,400

    GDP (By sector)
    Agriculture38%, Industry21% and Services 41%

    Unemployment rate
    42%

    Population below poverty line
    45%

    Inflation rate (consumer prices)
    7.8%

    Budget
    Revenues: $1.153 billionExpenditures: $1.789 billion

    An Overview of Nepalese EconomyThere is nothing much to talk about when it comes to Nepalese economy. The data doesn't paint a rosy picture at all. In fact the picture looks grim. Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world. In fact Nepal doesn't stand anywhere to its otherwise developing neighbors such as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Thanks to the Sub-Sahara African countries, it is not considered the poorest economy now. Nevertheless, with almost 45% of its population living below the poverty line, Nepal has to do much catching before being termed a Developing Economy.Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for three-fourths of the population and accounting for 38% of GDP. Most of the agriculture activities take place in the Tarai region. The sub-standard equipments and pesticides along with the medieval mode of agriculture make it a tough affair. The industrial sector is in a dismal condition. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. These things are hardly considered industrial activities by New-school economists.Due to its long stint with monarchy and feudalism, Nepal has one of the most uneven distributions of resources and wealth in the Asia. This has led to the birth of counter initiative movements such as Maoism. Security concerns relating to the Maoist conflict and counter insurgency initiatives have led to a decrease in tourism, a key source of foreign exchange. Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower and tourism. These are considered the up coming hot cakes in New-wave economy. Prospects for foreign trade or investment in other sectors will remain poor, however. There are lots of reasons for this such as the small size of the economy, technological backwardness, landlocked geographic location, civil strife and its susceptibility to natural disaster
    2.Asia
    I. Introduction
    In the year after the Asia-Europe Finance Ministers Meeting in Bangkok in September 1997, the serious, but apparently isolated, crisis faced at that time by Thailand was followed by worldwide turbulence. Situations of similar severity developed elsewhere in Asia, and Russia's unilateral debt moratorium in August 1998 led to a broader increase in risk aversion among financial investors, and to the drying up of private financial flows to emerging markets. Fears arose that crisis would spread to several major emerging market economies in Latin America. At first largely insulated, the industrial countries also began to feel the effects of the crisis during the third quarter of 1998, which together with signs of deepening recession in Japan, gave rise to concerns about a global credit crunch. By the time of the IMF/World Bank Annual Meeting in October 1998, fears had escalated that the current economic slowdown might continue to widen and deepen in 1999.
    By the end of 1998, signs were emerging that the worst of the crisis in Asia was over, and that conditions were emerging for renewed growth later in 1999. The key challenge now is how to ensure that these tentative signs of recovery can be turned into a sustained recovery of strong high-quality growth.
    After a brief review of recent global developments (Section II), this paper assesses Asia's programs, performance, and prospects (Sections III and IV). Finally, noting that Asia was the first to encounter the effects of the crisis, and has for some months begun to show positive responses to the policy programs, Section V explores the characteristics of the revitalized Asia that may emerge from this experience.
    II. Recent global developments
    Although a number of downside risks linger, the risk of worldwide recession was diminished by several positive developments during the last quarter of 1998, most of them considered policy actions by countries around the world, which helped to restore a measure of calm to financial markets. These actions include:
    Easing of interest rates by central banks in most industrial countries;
    New policy measures in Japan to address banking sector problems and announcements of further fiscal stimulus;
    Commitments by Brazil to a program to address its economic imbalances with extensive support from the international community, agreed in mid-November;
    Continued progress with stabilization and reform in the Asian crisis countries suggesting that the conditions are emerging for a recovery of growth;
    Progress toward implementing the IMF quota increase, the activation of the New Arrangements to Borrow, and the Miyazawa Initiative to provide additional assistance to the Asian crisis countries;
    The proposal by G-7 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, in their end-October statement, to enhance financing facilities in the IMF and World Bank to help ward off financial market contagion, along with their reaffirmed commitment to move forward with the agenda to strengthen the architecture of the international financial system.
    Overall, therefore, there is some evidence that conditions in capital markets have eased since early October. But there are still signs that perceptions of risk are considerably greater than has been normal in recent years. These conditions are reflected in the IMF's latest projections1 that point to growth in both 1998 and 1999 of about 2 1/4 percent, well below the strong growth of previous years, followed by a recovery to about 3 1/2 percent in 2000.
    Even if the risk of recession has abated, the international community still confronts an imperfect international financial system, some elements of which have not been adapted sufficiently to keep pace with the rapid evolution of the markets in recent years. The Asian crisis demonstrated clearly that, in addition to problems in the countries themselves, the international system still lacks many of the standards and the transparency that characterize well-developed financial markets at the national level.
    III. The Asian Crisis, Programs, and Responses2
    1. The background revisited
    As a broad generalization, the crises in East Asian countries were the result of interaction among shortcomings in the global system, flawed national financial systems, and deficient corporate and public governance. As global financial markets developed, especially in the early 1990s, capital was attracted to East Asia in large part because of its exceptional record of growth and macroeconomic management. However, serious weaknesses that had been concealed in part by the magnitude of the flows, and in part by the inadequacy of risk assessment by foreign creditors and weak supervisory practices in some creditor countries, eventually came to light with the onset of the crises.
    The conjunction of these long-term trends led to the most critical weakness—the immediate cause of the crisis—the accumulation of very large amounts of short-term debt. In the years prior to the crisis, large capital inflows contributed to a variety of problems including overinvestment, inflated domestic asset prices and, deteriorating loan quality. These weaknesses, in turn, reflected more fundamental problems, including weak domestic bank supervision and regulation, a history of political interference and the lack of sound commercial standards in the allocation of credit, and pervasive explicit or implicit government guarantees. Short-term inflows were also drawn in by the perceived implied guarantee represented by the exchange rate regimes that were viewed as de facto pegs.
    Against this background, the way in which capital flows were liberalized contributed to financial sector weakness: banks and corporations gained ready access to large amounts of short-term external borrowing that was not adequately monitored by authorities, while longer-term capital flows were being liberalized more gradually and deliberately. In short, the countries had become highly vulnerable to sudden shifts in investor sentiment.
    The domestic vulnerabilities came to a head as growth slowed in 1996, largely as a result of adverse terms-of-trade shocks, a loss of competitiveness associated with currency pegs that were maintained in the face of a sharp dollar/yen appreciation, declining export demand, and growing over-capacity in certain sectors. In Thailand, which also had a relatively large fiscal imbalance, the developments were reflected in a widening current account deficit. Policy responses in early 1997 were not adequate. The growth slowdown, in turn, was reflected in sharp declines in equity and property prices, which aggravated financial sector weaknesses and acted as a further brake to growth. Finally, the crisis began in the financial sector because of excessive maturity mismatches in balance sheets.
    One striking feature of this episode was the speed and virulence with which crisis spread through the region, and threatened to extend worldwide. Four influences may explain this phenomenon: (i) common factors in the external environment, specifically the features in the global financial system that led to the large flows of volatile capital to the region; (ii) the spillover effects from trade and financial linkages among the countries; (iii) a true contagion effect, as the crisis in one country caused investors to reassess the fundamentals in other countries; and (iv) a number of unexpected exogenous factors, including weaker terms of trade and the deepening of the recession in Japan.
    2. Basic strategy of programs
    Since the countries faced an immediate liquidity crisis coupled with profound structural problems, the programs required a comprehensive focus embracing structural and macroeconomic policies:
    First, structural reform, particularly in the financial and corporate sectors, assumed a central role. While clearly onerous in such difficult economic conditions, structural reform was essential to address the root causes of the crisis, to restore market confidence, and to set the stage for a sustainable resumption of growth.
    Second, macroeconomic policies were designed initially to stabilize the economy and subsequently to support economic recovery. Monetary policy aimed to prevent a spiral of depreciation and inflation; once a measure of stability had returned to exchange markets, interest rates began to decline. Fiscal policy aimed to complement monetary policy, and to make room in the budget for the costs of bank restructuring. Later, as recession deepened and social costs escalated, fiscal policies were relaxed.
    Third, large official financing packages were seen as an essential complement to the macroeconomic and structural policies adopted to help break the self-reinforcing cycle of capital outflows, exchange rate depreciation, and financial sector weakness.
    There has been criticism of IMF-supported programs in Asia, principally on three grounds; first, the appropriate focus of monetary policy as between exchange rate stabilization and the real economy; second, the stance of fiscal policy; and third, the introduction of structural reforms as part of programs. In addressing these criticisms, two points about the design of IMF-supported programs need to be borne in mind. The first is that policies adopted in response to each stage of the crisis must be seen in the context of the options available in the circumstances. By the time the Fund was called in to help design stabilization and adjustment programs in the three countries most severely affected, the immediate priority was to restore shattered investor confidence. The second point is that policy responses were adapted rapidly to changing circumstances after the onset of the crisis.
    3. Macroeconomic effects - an overview
    The countries at the heart of the crisis have suffered deep recessions in 1998, although by year-end signs were emerging that the worst was over. Real GDP is estimated to have declined in 1998 by 7 percent in Korea, 8 percent in Thailand, and 15 percent in Indonesia (Table 1). Only in the Philippines was output contraction avoided. The slowdown was dramatically different from that assumed in formulating the programs, and its magnitude, once appreciated, prompted substantial revisions in economic policies.
    Associated with the downturn and capital outflows were large current account adjustments which far exceeded original program projections. Current account balances strengthened by 5 percentage points of GDP in Indonesia, 15 percentage points in Korea, 6 percentage points in the Philippines, and 13 percentage points in Thailand relative to 1997, largely due to a sharp compression of imports. The response of exports was constrained by weak demand throughout the region, falling export prices, and simultaneous depreciations in partner countries. There was an even sharper decline in domestic demand, which was largely a reflection of a precipitous drop in fixed investment and, to a lesser extent, in private consumption.
    4. Macroeconomic policies
    Monetary and exchange rate policies. Monetary policy in the programs sought to tread a narrow path between preventing a spiral of depreciation and inflation on the one hand, and avoiding a severe liquidity squeeze that could excessively weaken economic activity on the other. At the very start of the crisis, the currencies depreciated sharply, and, in view of the countries' large unhedged external debt, they were concerned about the further damage that would be caused by an even steeper slide in currency values. Although the key decision was made to allow exchange rates to continue to float, interest rates were raised sharply to restore some stability to foreign exchange markets. This, together with inflows of official financing, limited the extent of further depreciation. Once the currencies began to strengthen, interest rates were reduced, and by the summer of 1998 they had returned to pre-crisis levels in Korea and Thailand, and were on a downward trend in Indonesia.
    A tight monetary policy was appropriate and inevitable at the outset of the programs to support an early return to external balance, and to contain and then reverse excessive currency depreciation. Given the prevalence of foreign currency-denominated debt, the alternative of permitting sharper currency depreciation through an easing of monetary policy could have had an even stronger contractionary effect. Experience with these programs has underscored the need, to which the Fund assigns high priority, to examine the role of monetary policy in the context of a financial crisis in countries with weak banking systems.
    Fiscal policy. The initial programs planned some fiscal adjustment to offset a weakening of fiscal positions, to make room for financing the costs of bank restructuring and to support external adjustment (mainly in Thailand). Credible steps toward these objectives were also expected to contribute to restoring confidence.
    In early 1998, as the recession deepened and current accounts shifted into large surplus owing to sagging domestic demand and large currency depreciations, fiscal policy was oriented toward supporting economic activity. Program reviews encouraged some enlargement of fiscal deficits to accommodate part of the effects of greater social spending and the exchange-rate depreciation. Programs turned progressively more expansionary, with the end result that fiscal deficits have been allowed to increase considerably. In practice, it proved difficult for the countries to use fully the scope afforded them for more expansionary budget policies, in part because of the time needed to develop effective new social spending programs.
    5. Structural reforms
    The programs in the Asian crisis countries stand out by the large number and broad range of structural reforms they included. These reforms were intended to address the underlying causes of the crisis, which were predominantly structural, and to create the basis for a return to sustainable growth. Close collaboration among the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the IMF were an essential feature in developing the structural components of the programs.
    Financial sector and corporate restructuring. Given the role financial sector weaknesses played in the emergence of the crisis, financial sector restructuring was, from the outset, at the top of the structural reform agenda. The strategy included two broad strands of measures: first, steps were needed to handle the immediate crisis, and second, economies had to be reformed to minimize the likelihood of recurrence. Measures were introduced to deal with insolvent financial institutions, strengthen the capital base of weak but viable institutions, and address the twin risks of bank runs and excessive liquidity expansion. An overhaul of prudential regulations and supervision was initiated together with steps to enhance transparency and governance in the financial system. The restructuring of the highly indebted corporate sector began to be considered in earnest only some months after the programs were launched, and these are expected to be central issues in the second and subsequent years of the reform programs.
    Other structural policies. The programs also included a large number of measures to address deficiencies in governance and market discipline, ranging from steps to enhance transparency and disclosure requirements to the dismantling of restrictive trading arrangements and privatization. In addition, steps were taken to advance trade and capital account liberalization in order to eliminate the distortions that had emerged as a result of incomplete and poorly sequenced previous reforms. In general, these measures were aimed at removing the structural weaknesses that accounted for the vulnerabilities in the financial and corporate sectors, thereby creating an environment for the resumption of sustainable growth.
    6. Social policies
    The social dimensions of the programs were recognized from the start, but as the recession deepened, it became evident that the social consequences would be much greater than expected. In response, stronger measures were taken to limit unemployment, to raise income transfers, and to broaden the coverage of social safety nets which were often rudimentary. A main reason that fiscal policy was relaxed so much was to accommodate the increasing social expenditure within the programs.
    The programs include many measures to strengthen social protection, and in particular to shelter the poor from the adverse effects of the economic crisis. The challenge has been to establish cost-effective, sustainable social programs that do not create large labor market disincentives or discourage job creation.
    In Indonesia, the revised 1998/99 budget provides for subsidies on food, fuel, electricity, medicine, and other essential items to increase to 6 percent of GDP from 1/2 percent of GDP in 1997. In addition, employment-generating public works directed toward poor households, programs for children in poor regions, and credit programs targeted to rural areas and small- and medium-sized enterprises have been expanded. A targeted scheme provides a monthly ration of 20 kgs. of rice at heavily subsidized prices to poor households.
    In Korea, unemployment insurance coverage is being extended, in several stages, to workers in small firms, as well as to part-time and temporary workers. The allocations for social assistance and special loan programs for the unemployed have been increased, a temporary program of noncontributory income support for the unemployed has been introduced, and public works programs are being expanded significantly. The cost of these programs will exceed 2 percent of GDP in 1998.
    In Thailand, temporary labor-intensive civil works programs in construction and infrastructure rehabilitation and job training programs have been introduced, social spending has been strengthened—including an expanded coverage of benefits—and educational loan programs have been increased. Subsidies for urban bus and rail fares have been maintained.
    7. Official financing and the role of the private sector
    The size and openness of the countries involved, and thus the potential volume of capital outflows, meant that the amount of financing provided to support the programs had little precedent. In addition to the IMF, multilateral support was provided by the World Bank and the AsDB. Bilateral support was part of the Thailand package, while for Korea and Indonesia, a "second line of defense" was pledged by bilateral creditors, but has remained unused.
    The issues that arise with the involvement of the private sector in the resolution of crisis are among the thorniest that are being addressed in the continuing discussions of the new financial architecture. The approach to involving the private sector in the Asia programs was not uniform and, initially, quite limited in part because of concerns of an adverse impact on private sector flows to other countries. As time passed, it became evident that official flows would not be enough. Mechanisms were developed to undertake rescheduling or restructuring of private sector liabilities, to restore conditions for rolling over maturing lines of credit, and securing new finance. The following notes mention briefly selected developments relating to restructuring obligations to foreign private creditors, as well as domestic debt workouts.
    Thailand received some assurances and indications, prior to the start of its program, regarding maintenance of credit lines from foreign banks resident in the country. Moreover, to accelerate domestic debt restructuring, a year later a new framework for voluntary corporate debt restructuring, based on the "London approach," was officially endorsed by creditors.
    Korea brought about an effective standstill on bank debt in late December 1997, and reached an agreement on rescheduling with 134 bank creditors in March 1998, after the program was in place. This enabled the rollover rate on external debt to rise from about 30-35 percent in December 1997 to 95 percent three months later. Its domestic corporate debt is being worked out under voluntary restructuring agreements among creditor banks and corporations. This process was at an advanced stage by the end of 1998.
    Indonesia's private sector debt differed from most, in that an unusually large proportion of the debt was owed by corporations rather than having been intermediated through banks. Its resolution has been correspondingly more complex, and it was not until June 1998 that a framework agreement was reached with private creditors for restructuring interbank and corporate debt, also aimed at restoring normal trade credit. The "Jakarta Initiative" has also recognized that corporate debt workouts need to involve domestic as well as foreign creditors, and in late 1998 the Government announced a comprehensive framework to this end.
    IV. Prospects
    Across Asia, the concern almost everywhere is to ensure that a new momentum is established for growth. The precise macroeconomic policies that are appropriate differ somewhat from country to country. There is greater uniformity in the need for decisive structural reform throughout the region. Despite different political systems, virtually every country faces an array of structural, institutional, and legal challenges that are strikingly similar. In part this reflects innate weaknesses in many countries. But each country in Asia, indeed around the world, currently faces the challenge of ensuring that its economic institutions keep pace with the demands of the globalized economy.
    1. Asian countries implementing IMF-supported programs
    Reviews of the programs with Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand were completed by the IMF's Executive Board in mid-December; it emerged that each program was on track, and each country made purchases on schedule. A review of the Philippines program was also completed earlier in the fourth quarter. Major progress was noted in stabilizing key financial variables, but concern was expressed at the depth of recession that the countries had experienced. While an upturn in production may still be some months away, at this juncture the prospects are favorable for a return of growth during the course of 1999. In order to ensure that this recovery takes hold, and develops into a new period of sustainable growth, it is essential to press ahead with the structural reforms that have been initiated and are beginning to take effect. It is encouraging that the ASEAN's Hanoi Plan of Action (December 1998) continues to emphasize the importance of structural reform, more liberal trade, and open capital flows. In this forum of Asian and European countries, it is appropriate to highlight ASEAN's call for action by other constituencies in the global economy to do their part in strengthening national and international financial systems.
    Although the contraction in Korea in 1998 was severe, the pace of decline in economic activity has now moderated. In view of the sharp economic downturn, macroeconomic policies were eased in an effort to support a recovery. Interest rates have been reduced to well below pre-crisis levels, although bank lending rates have been slower to adjust. Some scope exists for further gradual easing. After near balance in 1997, the budget deficit is targeted at 5 percent of GDP both in 1998 and 1999. Assuming progress on financial and corporate restructuring, and a more favorable external environment, the economy is expected to begin a recovery. Korea's progress is amply demonstrated by the authorities' capacity to begin prompt repayment of its obligations to the IMF. It may be recalled that Korea was the first country to use the Supplemental Reserve Facility, under which repayments begin to fall due within one year. Its action sends out a clear signal of the recovery that is under way.
    Over the medium term, the Korean economy is expected to resume a high growth path, albeit at lower rates than it had enjoyed in the past two decades. While strong savings and improved productivity will play a key role in returning Korea to sustainable growth, the deep structural problems affecting the economy will take several years to resolve. Financial and corporate restructuring remain at the heart of the Fund-supported program, and reform is most advanced in the financial sector where significant steps have been taken toward rationalizing and recapitalizing the financial sector. Corporate reform is under way, but much remains to be done especially with regard to restructuring the top five chaebols. Initially, these chaebols had not been included in the debt workout process and had made limited progress in restructuring, but a recent agreement among the top chaebols, creditors, and the government has been announced. The pace of restructuring will need to be accelerated further over the coming months.
    In Thailand, a number of indicators point to an easing of the recession. Key financial indicators are encouraging: inflation has stayed lower than expected, the baht has appreciated, money-market interest rates have fallen below pre-crisis levels, and equity prices are now well above their lows. The very large swing (equivalent to 13½ percent of GDP) in the external current account balance is reflected in the level of gross official reserves, which provided over 8 months of import coverage by the end of 1998. The decline of manufacturing output has slowed sharply, and finance and business expectations are notably less pessimistic.
    Current projections anticipate modest positive growth of about 1 percent for 1999 as a whole. For the near term, in order to promote recovery, fiscal policy will remain expansionary, with a deficit of 5 percent of GDP in prospect (8 percent, including financial restructuring costs.) The prospects for a more rapid recovery are muted by the continuing fragility in the financial and corporate sectors, where the reforms and restructuring are still incomplete, although important reforms were initiated in August. If these reforms are carried through, then the prospects are good for an eventual return to a sustainable growth path at quite high rates, though falling short of the pace seen in the pre-crisis years.
    Indonesia, where both economic and social instability have been the greatest, is also showing signs that the worst may be over, although social and political stability will be needed to allow a full recovery of confidence. As in Korea and Thailand, the financial indicators have been the first to respond: interest rates are declining, the currency is appreciating, and usable international reserves had risen to the equivalent of 5 to 6 months of imports by the end of 1998.
    A modest recovery of output is now projected to begin during the second half of 1999. Over the next year, end-period inflation is expected to drop sharply from its current level of 80 percent to just 10 percent. With some stabilization gains already evident, a judicious use of macroeconomic policies is possible to provide some stimulus to the economy. The program agreed with the authorities encourages accelerated development expenditures by allowing a fiscal deficit of 6 percent of GDP for 1999/2000, and foresees room for a careful easing of monetary policy to help economic recovery. For the medium-term strength of the economy, among the key structural issues is the need to move ahead quickly with bank recapitalization, and improved bank supervision and regulation. Restoring viability to the corporate sector is essential, to which end the Jakarta Initiative, the framework for corporate debt workouts, needs to be made operational by taking the necessary legal, regulatory and personnel actions.
    In the Philippines, less severely affected than the countries in crisis, growth prospects are moderately positive: after slightly positive growth in 1998, the prospects are for 2-3 percent growth this year. Macroeconomic policies were reoriented to support domestic demand by an expansionary fiscal policy that is continuing into 1999, and the cautious easing of monetary policy that is under way. The external current account swung into small surplus in 1998, but one of the policy challenges for the coming year will be to raise external reserves.
    Prospects for the medium-term have been bolstered by a structural reform program that has been broadened to include, in addition to banking and tax administration, the corporate and public sectors, as well as extending the process of trade liberalization that has been under way for several years. Even though the Philippines has not suffered as deep a banking or corporate sector crisis as elsewhere, it is taking measures to strengthen banks' capacity to withstand shocks, and to enhance prudential and supervisory structures.
    2. Other Asian countries
    Japan, as the world's second largest industrial economy, has a key role to play in both regional and global terms. Recent policy actions and developments are welcome, but may not be sufficient to turn the economy around before next year. Although rising public investment may have arrested the output decline in the fourth quarter of 1998, indicators of private domestic demand remain weak. A prerequisite to re-igniting sustained economic growth is the resolution of the problems in the banking system, and the October legislation represents a significant step in this direction. The critical challenge for the authorities is to catalyze a quick and forceful recapitalization and restructuring that will restore the financial health and profitability of the banking system, including a full and transparent accounting of banks' financial positions to restore investor confidence. In addition, further progress with deregulation and broader structural reform is essential for the economy to regain its dynamism and meet the needs of its aging population. But macroeconomic policies also have a major role to play in stimulating domestic demand—a role that is facilitated by the absence of inflation and the large external current account surplus.
    The scope to reduce interest rates further has been very limited since the Bank of Japan lowered its operating target for the overnight call rate to 1/4 percent in early September. The Bank of Japan has appropriately continued to boost liquidity growth and support private sector credit creation through operations in the private debt market. These operations can continue to play a useful role in helping to moderate deflationary pressures.
    While Japan clearly faces a difficult challenge of fiscal consolidation in the medium term, in the short term the paramount need is to ensure a resumption of growth. The initiatives it has taken recently and the renewed determination it is showing are welcome developments, clearly moves in the right direction. The package of fiscal measures introduced in mid-November 1998, and tax cuts and higher public spending in the FY 1999 budget promise significant stimulus in 1999, magnifying the effects of the April package that are already beginning to be felt. The critical challenge at this point will be to ensure that these recent commitments are implemented in a manner that quickly provides the needed stimulus to domestic demand.
    In China and Hong Kong SAR, the successful maintenance of the exchange rate regimes has helped restore stability in Asian financial markets. China's ability to float an international bond that was heavily oversubscribed and at an impressively low spread in current conditions, is testament not only to China's strength, but also to a gradual return of confidence in Asia as a whole. Currency pressures had already eased considerably in recent months in both China and Hong Kong, partly owing to the weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to other major currencies. This has facilitated a lowering of interest rates in both cases. Fiscal policy is also providing helpful support to demand in both cases. While fiscal stimulus in China is appropriate, its composition should be carefully tailored to ensure that spending is efficient and the quality of growth is not compromised. Interest rate policy will need to remain cautious in light of continuing outflows on the capital account of the balance of payments. In this context, it will be important for the recent intensification of capital controls to be implemented without adversely affecting legitimate trade and investment activities. The recent problems in some financial institutions underscore the need for continued financial sector reform.
    India's situation is rather different from those in East Asia. It has experienced a mild slowdown, while inflation has risen reflecting agricultural supply difficulties, rapid monetary growth, and currency depreciation. The current account position has weakened, but international reserves remain comfortable. The first priority is to address weakness in the fiscal position and to place the budget deficit firmly on a downward path. Efforts to rein in the rapid rate of monetary expansion are required to contain inflationary pressure. Aside from these macroeconomic policy requirements, a wide range of structural reforms are needed to boost confidence and reinvigorate growth.
    In Malaysia, economic activity remains weak, and the prospects for sustained medium-term recovery are more uncertain than the other East Asian countries in crisis. The IMF's forecasts of an 8 percent decline in GDP in 1998 and 2 percent decline in 1999 indicate that the policy stimulus of July 1998 has yet to take effect. Policy is becoming more expansionary, as elsewhere in the crisis countries, through the larger fiscal deficit planned for 1999 and through an easing in monetary policy. At the same time, some steps were taken to strengthen the financial and corporate sectors. However the effect of these measures on medium-term growth prospects was jeopardized by the imposition of capital and exchange controls and by the relaxation of some prudential standards and introduction of directed lending. While capital outflows have been stemmed and external reserves have risen, investor confidence has been damaged by the capital controls, and some official sources of external finance have dried up. Neither source is likely to recover until the overall stance of policies is modified.
    V. Characteristics of a revitalized Asia
    This section sketches some of the features that should characterize Asia as it emerges from the crisis. Many of these features are policies that may need to be adopted by governments, and each may be regarded as a necessary condition for the resumption of sustainable high-quality growth, but in each case, the individual policies are not sufficient to ensure the desired outcome. The key, therefore, is sustained implementation of policies across a very wide front, so that Asia may eventually regain its position at the forefront of international development.
    Few analysts doubt that the Asian countries in crisis have the potential to return to rapid growth paths, although the rates of growth may be slightly lower than witnessed in the pre-crisis years. Even if the volume of investment is less than in the past, the determined implementation of structural reforms will contribute to growth through gains in efficiency. To achieve lasting growth, action on many fronts is needed. These may be conveniently divided among policies that enhance the features that have traditionally been analyzed as at the heart of East Asia's remarkable progress, and those that need to be given a higher profile in policy formulation.
    1. Enhancing "traditional features"
    An Asia that is open and competitive. It is impressive that, despite the severity of the recession, most countries in the region have eschewed protectionist policies. They have recognized, correctly, that the strong growth of the past had benefited from the progress toward open trade, investment, and payments regimes. This necessary, if not sufficient, condition for ensuring the growth of internationally competitive industries will need to remain at the heart of economic thinking.
    An Asia with sound macroeconomic policies. The sound policy stance, which was perceived to be one of the hallmarks of the high-growth era in Asia, will need to be reinforced with robust institutions and market-based policy instruments. An instinctive preference for conservative financial policies has meant that it did not come easily for some countries deliberately to relax their policies to provide the necessary stimulus for economic growth. This attitude augurs well for the continuation of sound financial policies when the recovery begins.
    An Asia that saves judiciously. The high rates of domestic saving that were observed in the past were important to financing development. As recovery resumes, it will be essential to ensure that the macroeconomic conditions and institutional requirements conducive to continued strong saving are continued.
    An Asia that invests efficiently. Even if high savings rates continue, it is likely that the foreign resources available will be more constrained and more expensive than in the past, as foreign investors' risk aversion has clearly increased as a result of the crisis. Thus while high investment ratios will clearly be desirable, it is most important that efficiency gains be promoted through a competitive environment and the promotion of a culture of seeking technical progress.
    2. Policies for higher quality growth
    An Asia with sound financial systems. Weak financial systems have been identified as one of the central flaws in the East Asian "model." A good start has been made in reform of financial sectors, but the process is inevitably time-consuming. The authorities throughout the region—not just the immediate crisis countries—need to give the highest priority to ensuring the establishment of robust financial systems with sound regulatory and supervisory structures and, where necessary, undertaking the closure, restructuring, or recapitalization of troubled banks. The construction of sound national banking systems, according to the Basle Core Principles, will contribute a more robust international system.
    An Asia that promotes an independent, competitive private sector. Weak corporate governance has been identified as another central flaw in Asian economies and must be addressed for long-term economic viability. In the near term, since many corporations are suffering intense liquidity or solvency strains, a priority is to press ahead with corporate debt work-outs to establish viable corporations on a sound financial footing. At the same time, governments need to press ahead with strategies to bolster the private sector, through phasing out direct state ownership, encouraging foreign enterprises and banks, establishing clear legal frameworks that promote competition and expose companies to bankruptcy, and introducing internationally accepted norms of accounting and auditing.
    An Asia with high standards of public sector governance and transparency. A crucial principle that will be needed to ensure sound public and corporate governance is that an "arm's length" relationship be maintained between the government and corporate sectors. The public sector also needs to operate to the highest standards of data dissemination to ensure that comprehensive, accurate, and timely information is available, and to begin to observe the code on transparency in fiscal policies recently established by the IMF. In due course, we would call on these countries—as indeed, all countries around the world—to adopt similar standards with respect to monetary and financial polices.
    An Asia with open capital markets. It is entirely appropriate that, in support of the other policies they are pursuing, countries throughout Asia should continue with strategies, tailored to their individual situations, to liberalize their capital accounts. But they should do so under two broad conditions: first, liberalization should proceed in a properly sequenced fashion with the strengthening of their domestic financial systems. Second, they should take care to avoid a process in which the easing of controls on longer term flows, especially of direct investment, lags behind de facto liberalization of short-term flows. It will be essential that these national measures are supplemented by a convincing international effort to introduce prudential measures for cross-border transactions.
    3.Europe
    In spite of the global economic slowdown, business travel seems to be holding up in Europe, and will do so for at least the next 12 months. That's the overriding message from the results of a survey of 600 European business travellers, commissioned by the National Business Travel Association (NBTA) in association with Vanson Bourne.Travel Vital to Business SuccessPublished following Crossroads Paris - a unique pan-European business travel conference, co-hosted by 12 business travel organizations from around the world and the Paragon Partnership alliance of business travel associations held on 14th-15th May - the research shows that 52% of travellers expect to continue with their current level of business travel over the next 12 months, while 22% believe it will actually increase. 26% expect it to decrease.However, the commitment by companies to safeguard what is viewed by many as a vital business function (50% of those who said they expect to travel less believe this will have a negative impact on their business) is dependent on travellers adhering to cost cutting measures when they travel. According to Kevin Maguire, President and CEO of the NBTA, companies must effectively communicate business travel goals to employees.
    Says Maguire: 'While the majority of business travellers understand the need to be prudent around costs, the most important issue for them when booking travel is convenience. That's why it is so vital that travel managers work with their communications colleagues to inform employees how travel changes are designed to meet both goals - cutting costs while offering convenience.'62% of travellers cited convenience as the most important factor when booking travel, compared to 25% who said cost. Over a third of respondents (36%) indicated their companies have mandated cheaper travel over the last six months. Of these, 35% have moved to cheaper airlines and tickets, 29% have mandated a cheaper class of travel and 36% have moved to cheaper accommodation options.'Getting employees to adhere to corporate travel policies can lead to significant cost savings,' adds Maguire. 'But stricter policies are most effective as part of a broader approach to maximizing travel value. It's a balancing act to find the right mix of preferred supplier arrangements, travel polices, employee communications, and enforcement.'From the survey it's clear that while meeting alternatives have their place, there's no substitute for getting in front of customers, colleagues, partners and prospects. Almost 20% of travellers have never used conference call services, while of those that have, 50% use them to complement face to face meetings rather than replace. The stats around video conferences are similar with 35% having never used them, and 41% again using them to complement the flesh press. Webinars and Virtual meetings (such as those held in Second Life) also have low levels of awareness and usage.Green Policies Changing Travel BehavioursThe survey also threw up some interesting findings around European business travellers' attitudes towards green travel and alternatives to flights.46% of respondents said that their company's environmental policies had some direct impact on their business travel. Of that group, the number one change of behaviour (44%) was a switch to public transport options. 33% also said that they were sharing more journeys with colleagues.Riding the RailsWhen asked about rail as an alternative to air travel, price was the number one consideration overall with 54% of respondents flagging it as a priority. Time was also a major consideration, with 51% of overall respondents saying that rail is important for journeys under 4 hours. 30% value consistent communications such as mobile signal and email.An interesting regional difference was apparent in the responses of UK business travelers, who said convenience of location was the main rail-versus-air decision-making factor over price, which suggests that UK business travellers are concerned about relying on rail infrastructure for business use due to the country's patchy rail network. That difference supports the importance of the continued investment being poured into Britain's railways to bring them up to the standard of their European neighbours.Concludes Maguire: 'Overall the findings are encouraging. The value of personal interaction is clearly understood and supported by European business travellers, but there's also a need to be watchful especially around balancing the needs of travelling employees against the need to cut costs. It's clear from the research that travel managers must understand how their colleagues' travelling priorities differ. I'm sure that the output from the keynote sessions, workshops and general networking at Crossroads Paris last week will also help educate and inform all parties so that business travel can continue to play such a vital role during tough economic times and, vitally, be a front-line aid to economic recovery.'About CrossroadsCrossroads Paragon Business Travel Conference & Expo, held 14-15 May 2009 in Paris, is a unique pan-European business travel conference. The event, now in its second year, is co-hosted by: The Paragon Partnership: The Global Alliance of Business Travel Associations; the Austrian Business Travel Association; the Brazilian Business Travel Association; the Danish Business Travel Association; the Finnish Business Travel Association; l'Association Française des Travel Managers, Verband Deutsches Reisemanagement (the Business Travel Association of Germany); the Netherlands Association for Travel Management; the Norwegian Business Travel Association; the Iberian Business Travel Association (Spain); the Swedish Business Travel Association; the Institute of Travel Management (UK and Ireland); and the National Business Travel Association (U.S.-based, global organisation). Crossroads Paris offered corporate travel professionals unparalleled education and networking, as well as an Expo highlighting the latest products and services from the leading European business travel suppliers.
    WORLD
    The World Economy
    The inertia of 1990's global economic slowdown will keep 1991's real GDP growth at 1.0 percent - the weighted average of 1.3 percent for the developed economies, 2.6 percent for the developing countries (LDC's), and 4.4 percent for Central Europe and the USSR. World economic growth in 1990-91 is the trough in the business cycle that last peaked in 1988 and which is projected to slope upward starting in 1992. A recovery to 3.3 percent in real GDP growth in 1992 will reflect rebounds in the developed economies of 1.8 percent, 2.7 percent in the LDC's, and 3.9 percent in Central Europe and the USSR.
    Inflation is projected to subside substantially in 1991, and by more in 1992. Weaker overall demand, and crude oil prices at or under $20 per barrel, will slow increases in consumer prices, which should eventually lead to real output gains in 1992 for most countries. Significant recoveries in economic activity are expected in North America, Latin America, and the Middle East in 1992. Central Europe and the USSR will remain in recession. Stronger growth in Asia will be driven by a 14-percent nominal gain in export earnings in 1992, a portion of which derives from Japan's increased import demand.
    Agricultural commodity prices have trended downward since 1989. Both agricultural raw materials and food have lost 11.2 and 8.8 percent, respectively, of their values from 1989. Current prices for food are only 8 percent higher than in 1985, whereas raw materials prices are still 30 percent higher. Sagging world demand, large crop harvests, and tighter worldwide money have pushed inflation down and dragged agricultural commodity prices down as well. Agricultural export subsidies could potentially increase if GATT negotiations do not succeed, bringing further deterioration in agricultural trade and prices.
    The Developed Economies
    Japan and the European Community (EC) are experiencing a cyclical slowdown. In Japan, higher interest rates and rocky equity markets have substantially reduced domestic investment growth, projected to be less than half 1990's 10.6-percent real gain. Also, the yen's appreciation against the dollar in 1990 and the current U.S. recession will contribute to Japan's expected lower export growth in 1991. Similarly, in Europe, much higher German interest rates and exchange rate appreciation against the dollar (in 1990) caused the cyclical adjustment, part of which is the EC's new trade deficit with the United States. A reversal of these trends is expected in 1992 as France, Italy, and the United Kingdom post higher real GDP growth.
    The United States, Canada, and the U.K. are expected to post impressive real GDP gains of 3.3, 3.9, and 2.5 percent in 1992, respectively, from their current mild recessions. Germany will continue to expand at a healthy 3.1 percent in 1992 despite slowing domestic demand. Japan should once again be growing at a strong 3.8-percent pace in 1992 as private consumption and exports stage a comeback, along with public expenditures growth.
    The Developing Countries
    Real output growth in the LDC's will double in 1992 if the projected expansions in Latin America (from 1.5 percent in 1991 to 3.6 percent in 1992), and in the Middle East (from -7.9 to 8.8 percent) materialize. A fourfold reduction in inflation in 1991 and a further halving in 1992 are counted on to pull Latin America out of its recession in 1991. In the Middle East, the presumed return to normal activity in Kuwait and the lifting of economic sanctions against Iraq should fuel much of the region's recovery in 1992, despite the projected languid performance in Saudi Arabia and other neighboring countries. Lower real revenues from Europe. The recent rise in the value of the dollar, however, will raise oil import costs of many LDC's. The weak developed economies will seriously reduce their import demand from Africa and Latin America in 1991, and these regions' heavy external debt will in turn adversely affect their own import demand. Overall, world real exports will grow faster (above 5 percent) starting in 1992 even as export price increases fall along with general consumer price inflation.
    A Free Trade Agreement between the United States and Mexico, if successfully negotiated, may initially limit trade expansion as long as both countries remain heavily indebted and under pressure to increase exports to the rest of the world. In Central Europe, room for trade expansion is enhanced by the low volume of intra-regional trade, since previous trade ties were predominantly with the USSR. Export growth for the region is projected to turn positive in 1992 as more of the economies overcome recession and as economic activity in the West picks up.
    World Petroleum
    World oil prices are only marginally higher than spring 1990's average of $15 a barrel, just before the Persian Gulf crisis that doubled prices to $30 by the fourth quarter. Despite efforts by the Organizations of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to cut its output by 5 percent, or by 1 million barrels a day (mbd), to 22.3 mbd, prices have remained stable. The reasons for this are: low demand from the industrialized countries, mainly the United States, due to slowed economic activity; seasonally slack use of oil for heating, or gasoline for longer-range driving in the spring; and the still-abundant stocks that were built up before and during the winter, which turned out to be a mild one.
    The outlook for stable prices appears favorable in the near to medium term. The return of some Kuwait production by next year and the greater production capacities recently installed or upcoming should more than offset declining outputs in the United States and USSR. The largest oil importer - the United States - has cut imports by more than 1.5 mbd since early last year. U.S. domestic production currently exceeds net imports by more than 1 mbd, in contrast to only a year ago when net imports topped domestic production by almost 1 mbd.
    Interest Rates
    Fear of inflation and excess demand for funds in Germany have resulted in higher real interest rates in that country and in all the members of the European Monetary System. Only by official currency devaluation can they find room to cut interest rates and revive flagging demand. In Japan, slower money supply growth to ease inflationary pressures pushed short-term interest rates from half of U.S. rates in early 1989 to current levels of almost 2 percentage points higher than U.S. rates. Real interest rate differentials of more than 2 percentage points favor the Japanese yen, and the German mark by 4 points, over the U.S. dollar.
    These real differentials were behind the yen's appreciation in the last three quarters of 1990 and the D-mark's appreciation since 1989. The recent depreciation of these currencies against the dollar may have to do more with discounting prospectively weaker German and Japanese economies, and the perception of the imminent revival of the U.S. economy. The ebullient equity markets in the United States, partly in response to lower short-term interest rates, have also helped strengthen the dollar.
    The demand for capital in the Middle East - for war-related reconstruction and for renewed weapons purchases - will divert some funds demanded in Central Europe and the USSR as well as in hard-pressed LDC's. Also, the global supply of funds eventually will be tapped by U.S. companies in a reviving U.S. economy. These demands will most likely put upward pressure on interest rates once again, because former capital exports by Germany and exports of oil and petroleum products in 1992 is the principal reason for the latter's retreat.
    Led by the newly industrialized countries of East Asia, Asia's real GDP growth is expected to exceed 6 percent in 1992, the highest since 1988's performance. Export growth of almost 14 percent is driven by continued strong inter-regional demand and especially by Japan's doubled import growth in 1992 from 1991. In Africa, lower economic activity in Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, and only marginal gains in South Africa, should keep the continent growing sluggishly in 1992, by far the slowest among the LDC's.

0 comments:

Post a Comment

Popular Posts

Nepali SXy BOM

{}

www.cybersansar.tk

www.cybersansar.tk

Scare your friends with fake Blue Screen of Death



The first one is about a screensaver that simulates the Blue Screen of Death (BSOD). You can download it for free and install in any PC to play a prank on your friends or family. The screensaver looks just like the real thing and it’s so realistic that it won’t disappear even after you move the mouse. In my first test, I was able to make it go away with a press of any button on the keyboard.

When you install the screensaver, you can set it up to display at a certain time and so play a little joke on your family members. Or if you have access to your friends’ computers, you can even install it there when they’re not looking. They will be very surprised :)

You can get the screensaver at this Microsoft Web site (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897558.aspx). Once you install the small file, you only need to extract it from the zip file to your C:\windows\system32 folder. Then go to your Display Properties (in Control Panel) and click on the Screensaver tab. Next, choose the SysinternalBluescreen screensaver from the list and click on Apply. Also change the timer if you want.

Have fun!

Note: BSOD usually comes up when your PC crashes and it means that there is a serious error with your hardware or software.

How to capture, save, record or download streaming audio for free


Ever wonder how you could possibly record or rip a song that’s being streamed across the Internet onto your computer for free? Trying to download streaming audio directly to your computer can be quite difficult because different sites have different security measures put in place, so one program might work for one site, but not another.

However, one surefire way of recording streaming audio from any web site is to simply capture it via the sound card on your computer. Basically, there are programs that can record whatever is being played by your computer’s speakers, so if you can hear it, it can be recorded. Of course, you’ll have to listen to the entire song since the recording is live, but it’s definitely much easier than trying to download the file from the web site directly.

There are two programs that I use to capture and save streaming audio: one installs as a toolbar into Internet Explorer or FireFox and the other one is a standalone program.

If you don’t mind having another toolbar installed in your browser window, FreeCorder (http://freecorder.com/sound-recorder/)is a very convenient program to use if you’re going to be recording music that’s mostly played via the web, such as Internet radio, etc. Also, it has many other features that make it quite useful, such as the ability to extract audio from videos and record from your PC’s microphone or line-in port. It also supports Windows Vista and has absolutely no spyware or adware, so you don’t have to worry about pop-ups, etc. You can save the recordings out as MP3 or as WAV files.

Once you have it installed, click on the Settings button to configure the source for the sounds or music.

By default, the “Record From Freecorder Audio Driver” is selected and this will record anything that is being played through your speakers. If you have a Windows input device, such as a microphone, you can select the second or third option. However, remember to de-select the other options and only have one checkbox checked at a time, otherwise it creates a separate file for each source.

You can also change the output format to WAV, prompt for a filename or automatically timestamp it, and choose the location for the destination files. Now start playing some music on your computer and press the red Record button. A little box will pop up and you should see the green line moving up and down. The nice thing about this program is that you can have your laptop sound on Mute or have your speakers turned off and it will still record whatever is being played.

Click Stop when you’re finished and then click Play to view your recordings. And that’s it! A pretty easy and cool way to record any sound or music off the Internet or from your computer.

If you don’t like the idea of cluttering up your browser toolbar, you can use a standalone program called MP3MyMP3 Recorder,(http://www.mp3mymp3.com/mp3_my_mp3_recorder.html) which is also free. Like FreeCorder, this program also records whatever is being played by your computer’s speakers. However, unlike FreeCorder, this program requires that your sound NOT be muted. So if you want to record anything, it has to be playing and you have to be able to hear it yourself.

Also, by default, MP3MyMP3 tries to record from your microphone and not your sound card, so click on the Source button and choose Stereo Mix as the sound source. The recording quality for both of the products was very good and sounded just like the originals from what I could tell. Personally, I like FreeCorder better, but MP3MyMP3 is also a fine alternative.

Computer Tips And Tricks



Scroll Bar को साइज(Width)बढाउने वा घटाऊनलाई

१ Desktop मा Right क्लिक गर्नुस् र Properties मा क्लिक गर्नुस्
२ Appearance Tab मा क्लिक गर्नुस्
३ Advanced Tab मा क्लिक गर्नुस्
४ Item मा Scrollbar चुज गर्नुस्
५ अब Size बढाउने हो या घटाऊने हो Amount राख्नुस्
६ ok , ok

Desktop बाट Recycle Bin लाई हटाउन चाहनु हुन्छ भने
१ Start मा क्लिक गर्नुस् अनी Run मा क्लिक गरेर Regedit टाइप गर्नुस् र Enter थिच्नुस्
२ त्यसपछि HKEY_Local_Macine \ Software \ Microsoft \ Windows \ Current Version \ Explorer \ Desktop \ Namespace
३ Namespace को "+" मा क्लिक गर्नुस्
४ 645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E मा क्लिक गर्नुस्
५ दाँया पट्टीको Default लाई डबल क्लिक गर्नुस् र Value Data को Recycle Bin लाई हटाइदिनुस्
६ आफ्नो कम्प्युटरलाई Re Boot गर्नुस् ।

तपाईं आफ्नो Folder लाई Invisible बनाउन चाहनु हुन्छ भने
१ कुन Folder लाई Invisible बनाउन चाहनु भएको हो त्यो Folder लाई Highlight गर्नुस्
२ Right माउस क्लिक गर्नुस् र Rename मा क्लिक गर्नुस्
३ Alt कि लाई थिची 0160 टाईप गर्नुस्
४ तपाईंको Folder को नाम हराइसकेको हुनेछ
५ अब उक्त Folder लाई Right क्लिक गर्नुस् , Prperties \ Customize \ Change Icon मा क्लिक गर्नुस् ६ त्यहा थुप्रै Icon हरुको लिस्ट छ , Scroll Bar लाई अली अली गरेर सार्दै जानुस् , त्यहा केही खाली ठाउँ देख्ननु हुन्छ त्यो खाली ठाउलाई क्लिक गर्नुस् र ok,ok गर्नुस्
७ तपाईंको Folder अब गाएब भयो । अब त्यो Folder लाई तपाईंले मात्र थाहा पाउने ठाउमा लगेर राख्न सक्नु हुन्छ ।
८ तपाईंले फेरी अर्को Folder लाई पनि यस्तै गर्न चाहनु भयो भने errorrenaming file or folder भन्ने मेसेज आउछ त्यसको लागि अर्को Folder लाई Rename गर्दा एक चोटि Space बार थिचेर अनी Alt कि थिचेर 0160 राख्दा हुन्छ । यसै गरी अरु Folder हरु पनि यस्तै गरी बनाउन सक्नु हुन्छ ।

Task bar लाई Auto Hide कसरी गराउने
१ Task bar को खाली ठाउमा Right क्लिक गर्नुस्
२ Properties मा क्लिक गर्नुस्
३ AutoHide मा टिक मार्क लगाइदिनुस्
४ ok गर्नुस्

My Computer बाट Manage लाई Hide गर्न चाहनु हुन्छ भने
१ Start \ Run \ Regedit खोल्नुस्
२ अब HKEY_CURRENT_USER / Software / Microsoft / Windows / CurrentVersion / Policies / Explorer
३ अब दाँया पट्टी खाली ठाउमा Right क्लिक गर्नुस् र New Dword Value मा क्लिक गर्नुस् । नाम राख्नुस् NoManageMyComputerVerb
४ Value Data लाई 1 राखी दिनुस्
५ computer लाई Reboot गर्नुस्

कम्प्युटरलाई Shutdown गर्ने Shortcut बनाउन चाहनु हुन्छ भने
१ Desktop मा Right माउस क्लिक गर्नुस्
२ New \ Shortcut
३ नाम राख्नुस् rundll32.exe वा PowrProf.dll वा SetSuspendState यि तीन मध्य कुनै पनि एक नाम राख्नुस्
४ अब तपाईंले बनाउनु भएको यो Shortcut लाई तपाईंले क्लिक गर्नु भयो भने तपाईंको कम्प्युटर आँफै Shutdown हुनेछ

Task Manager लाई Enable या Disable गर्ने
१ Start \ Run \ Regedit
२ Regedit भित्र HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System
३ दाँया भागमा Right क्लिक गरेर New DwordValue बनाउनुस् र नाम राख्नुस् DisableTaskMgr
४ Task Manager Enable गर्नको लागि Value लाई 0 राखी दिनुस्
५ Disable गर्न को लागि Value 1 राख्नुस्

Desktop Cleanup Wizard लाई कन्ट्रोल गर्ने
Default मा Desktop Cleanup Wizard को पप अप हरेक ६० दिन पछि तपाईंको Desktop मा आउने गर्छ , यसलाई हटाउन चाहनु हुन्छ भने
१ Desktop मा Right क्लिक गर्नुस्
२ Properites मा जानुस्
३ Desktop Tab मा क्लिक गर्नुस्
४ Customize Desktop Button मा क्लिक गर्नुस्
५ Desktop Cleanup Wizard मा भएको टिक मार्कलाई हटाइदिनुस्

Internet Explorer बाट File Menu लाई लुकाउन चाहनु हुन्छ भन
१ Start \ Run \ Regedit
२ HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer
३ दाँया भागको खाली ठाउमा Right क्लिक गरी New Binary Value मा क्लिक गर्नुस् र नाम राखी दिनुस् NoFileMenu
४ Value लाई 01 00 00 00 राखी दिनुस्
५ कम्प्युटरलाई Reboot गर्नुस्

अनौठा अनी Funny USB Drive हरु

USB Drive हरु भनेको आजभोली सबैले प्रयोग गर्ने Gadget हो तर USB Drive हरु पनि कस्ता कस्ता हुन्छन एक चोटि हेर्नुहोस् त ।

---------------आउ अब भिडौँ------------------
हिजो सुगौली दुखेथ्यो आज सुस्ता दुख्यो एक दिन होईन यहाँ पुस्तौं पुस्ता दुख्यो
छिमेकीलाई राख्नु पर्ने मान राख्दाराख्दैनाता तोडेर जब्बरजस्ती घुस्दा दुख्यो
म त जवान थिएँ एक मुक्का केही भएनकठै ! आमाको चोक्टालाम्टा लुछ्दा दुख्यो
काट्दा घाउ भए त के भो पक्कै पुरिन्छ परन्तु बग्या रगत तनतनी चुस्दा दुख्यो
हतपत्ती केही कुराले नछुने इन्द्र को मनबल्ल नेपाल आमाले आँशु पुछ्दा दुख्यो ।
बारीको कान्लो मिचियोकेहि बोलीनसोचेँछिमेकी हो गार्हो सार्हो पर्दा काम लागेको छ खेतको आली मिचियो केहि बोलीनपछाडी फर्किएँ गाउँले हो मर्दा पर्दा काम लागेको छ यस पाली त सिमानामा देशै मिचिएको छ ईतिहास पल्टाएँन मर्दा काम लागेको छ न पर्दा काम लागेको छ मेरो देशको छातीमा कुल्चीने सामू अहिले त मलाई मेरो खीया लागेको खुकुरी उधाउने रहर जागेको छ (nepalimnodel@hotmail.com)

SOME BEAUTIFUL QUOTES!!!!
"Life is either a daring adventure, or nothing."
"Each of us must be the change we want to see in the world."
"A life is only as important as the effect it has on other lives."
"If you want to lift yourself up, lift up someone else."
"Friends are the angels who lift us to our feet when our wings have trouble remembering how to fly."
"Imagination is more important than knowledge."
"There is creative vision in each of us, but sometime it's hard to get that creative part started."
"There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work, and learning from failure."
"The closer one gets to the top, the more one finds there is no top."
"In order to succeed you must fail, so that you know what not to do the next time."
"Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly."
"Failure is success if we learn from it."
"In order to succeed, your desire for success should be greater than your fear of failure."
"Excuses are the nails used to build a house of failure."
"Failure is only the opportunity to begin again more intelligently."
"You don't get paid for the hour. You get paid for the value you bring to the hour."
"I do not pray for a lighter load, but for a stronger back."
"Success is the good fortune that comes from aspiration, desperation, perspiration and inspiration."
"If you do not hope, you will not find what is beyond your hopes."
"A mind, once stretched by a new idea, never regains its original dimensions."
"What you can do, or dream you can do, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it."
"Wisdom is knowing what to do next; skill is knowing how to do it, and virtue is doing it."
"Never doubt the power of a small group of committed people to change the world. That's about the only way it has ever happened in the past."
"We are the music makers. We are the dreamers of the dreams."
"We are as gods, so we might as well get good at it."
"I was hungry and you gave me food; I was thirsty and you gave me drink; I was a stranger and you took me in; I was naked and you clothed me; I was sick and you visited me; I was in prison and you came to me. I thirsted for knowledge, and you gave me an opportunity to learn." Jesus.
"In every idea a multitude of new ideas is lying dormant."
"The earliest you can start any project is now."


Homemade Skin Whitener
While people claim that beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder, you would not meet many, who are thoroughly satisfied with themselves. Traditionally, women have been the target audience for beauty product manufactures. However, in the contemporary times, men are equally concerned about their looks and appearance. Talking about beauty, skin tone and color tops the ‘concern’ list. Even after thousands of assertions, the wish to have a lighter skin tone (How I wish I had a skin like her/ him – so fair, so nice, so beautiful) still remains etched in the minds of people, by large. This is where commercialism comes into play.


Starting from the local brands to the international ones, you are likely to find at least one skin whitening product in the range. However, the question is - do these products really work and whiten the skin tone? The answer is best not discussed. The products bought from the market are usually injected with harmful chemicals that make the skin worse, forget about the claims of whitening it. So, the best bet would be to indulge in homemade products. Not only are they chemical free, but also make the skin look brighter and appealing. In the following lines, we have provided effective homemade skin whitener.
Home Remedies for Skin Whitening

Orange Pack
Oranges are valuable ingredients that help in the skin whitening process. For this, collect some orange peels and dry them out in the sunlight. Once fully dried, grind them to make a fine powder. Now, add a few drops of milk to this powder, to making a fine paste. Apply this paste on the face and wait until it dries. Thereafter, wash off your face using lukewarm water.

Sandal Facial Skin Bleach
Sandalwood powder not only lightens the skin tone, but also helps acquire an even texture and complexion. For this, you need to take small amount of sandalwood powder. Add to this, a few drops of lemon juice, cucumber juice and tomato juice. Mix all the ingredients properly, to make a fine paste. Now, apply this paste on the skin and leave it, until it gets fully dried. Rinse off the face using warm water.
Gram Flour Facial Skin Bleach
Take about 2 spoons of full gram flour and add to this, a pinch of turmeric powder and a few drops each of milk cream and lemon juice. Mix all the ingredients to make a fine paste and spread it evenly on the skin. Leave it for about 10 to 15 minutes. Once dried, scrub it off and later rinse your face with warm water. It would have beneficial effects on the skin.

Milk Powder Pack
Did you know that that milk powder, which you use for making tea and coffee, has beneficial effects on your skin? Take a small bowl and mix a tsp each of milk powder, lemon juice and honey. Add to this half a tsp of almond oil. Apply this mixture on the face and wash it off after about 10 minutes. Apart from whitening the skin, it would also bring a shine on the face.

Almonds & Honey
Almonds, when mixed with honey and applied as a paste, have beneficiary effects on the skin. They not only lighten the skin tone of the face, but also add shine to it. For this, you need to soak almonds overnight. The next morning, peel them and grind them, to make a fine paste. Now, add honey to it and apply it on the face. Once dried, scrub it off. It would leave the skin whiter and glowing.

Others
A combination of yoghurt and orange is found to be beneficial in treating skin darkness and dullness. Mix equal parts of yogurt and orange juice and apply on the face. Rinse off after about 15 minutes.
Honey and lemon juice have been deemed as an ideal face whitening combo for long. For this, you need to combine equal parts of honey and lemon. Apply it on the face and after about 15 minutes, rinse it off.
Cucumber and lemon juice, when mixed together, act favorably as a skin whitening product. Mix cucumber juice and lemon juice in equal parts andapply it on the face. Rinse off after about 15 minutes.
Potatoes are natural bleaching agent. Apply potato juice on to the face and leave it on for about 15 minutes. Rinse it off using warm water. Potatoes not only whiten the skin, but also reduce pigmentation and blemishes.
A mixture of oatmeal with curd and tomato juice works well as homemade skin whitening product. Apply this mixture on the face and leave it for about 20 minutes. Thereafter, wash it off using cold water. It helps remove tanning and lightens the skin.



10 Best Sites to Create Your Own Free Ringtones
के तपाईं कुनै mp3 गीतको फाइललाई ringtone बनाउन चाहनु हुन्छ ? यस्ता धेरै कारणहरु छन जसको लागि मानिसहरु फरक फरक ringtone प्रयोग गर्छन् जस्तै : विभिन्न callers के बीचमा अन्तर थाहा पाउन, म्युजिकको enjoy गर्न, वा रमाइलोको लागि । फरक फरक मोबाईल फोनमा फरक फरक फरम्याटका ringtone हरु प्रयोग हुन्छन । त्यसैले तपाईंलाई यो थाहा पाउन जरुरी छ कि तपाईंको मोबाईलमा कुन फरम्याटका ringtone ले support गर्छ र तपाईंलाई जानकारी भई सके पछि तपाईंले त्यही फरम्याटमा आफ्नो mp3 गीतहरुको फाइललाई तल उल्लेखित केही साईटहरुको मद्घतले चेन्ज गरेर आफ्नो मोबाईलमा use गर्न सक्नु हुन्छ ।
Some Best Sites to Create Your Own Free Ringtones !!!
1. 1Zedge – This site enables you to upload your own mp3 music and create unique free ringtones on the fly. You can also download free ringtones of popular and latest songs.
2. Audiko – It allows you upload a song directly from your PC or a URL and then clip the part of the song you want to set as a ringtone. You can download the ringtone as an mp3, .amr or for iPhone. You can even put the ringtones on your blog and share with friends.
3. Mp3mer – Here you will find a marker tool to set range and ringtone duration. Mp3mer enables you to change the sound quality and filters if needed. Other effects which can be added to the ringtone include fade in/out, bass, treble, chorus, echo etc.
4. Mobicious – Choose any 20 seconds of your MP3 file to make it into a ringtone and send it to your mobile.
5. Mobiles24 – This site allows you to create and download latest and top ringtones. ‘Request your name ringtone’ feature is also available here.
6. MakeOwnRingtone – The unique feature of this web application is that it offers a wide range of uploadable formats like MMF, AAC, MP3, MP4, QCP, OGG. The created ringtone can be either sent to your mobile or as an mail.
7. Cellsea – This site enables you to upload a file that you want to create as ringtone and then you can choose the start/end time, sound quality, length etc. Supported file formats are mp3, mp4, m4A, flv, midi, aac, ogg, wav, aiff, wma etc.
8. Playscreen – You can create your own original ringtones here and sell ringtones o earn some bucks.
9. MyxerTones – The site provides with ringtones of various categories like alerts and alarms, rock, jazz, popular artists, comedy etc. It allows you easily customize the ringtone and send it to a phone. You can also download ringtones to your iPhone.
10. ToneBee – This site enables you to create a ringtone in just 3 simple steps. Upload your mp3 file, create a ringtone and download it to your phone.

Best Ideas That a AdSense User Have to Know And Follow!!

Tips No 1:
I think, you learn all the AdSense program policies, terms and policies and keep yourself up to date by joining and posting forum or group posts of AdSense. Now, the last thing you should know and follow is quite hard at the first time to you. But this is really very simple and easy. It's the website optimization. Many people says that optimization techniques are very hard to apply and understand. But I think so. Optimization includes both placing the AdSense ads and using the high paying keywords to your web-pages.If you use blog or if you have your own website then place Google ads at the starting of your page content after the main header of your site. You may use the format of this page. Look this page places ads before and after the title of this page. This is really an eye catching position to attract visitors. Moreover, in the right sidebar there is another ad block. That is also a nice placement of ads also. Try to find in this way to place your ad's position.

TIPS 2 :
The best earning way is the Google AdSense for every publisher. You can earn money easily by displaying Google AdSense ads to your website or blog. Also, there are other AdSense companies but Google AdSense is the best among all. It's the way to earn money form home. So, it's the online money earning game. You can easily earn extra cash form home by doing a little work. You can learn more by reading Google Adsense : Start Earning Money Using Google Adsense. This page only tells your the most and mandatory 3 tips that an AdSense User have to know and follow. These tips are really important and you should have to follow strictly if you want to earn much money from home.
TIPS 3:
As a AdSense user, you must have to know the terms and policy of Google AdSense. There are several policies to earn legally and much by using AdSense. All AdSense user must have to know before using it. For example, you can't use Google AdSense code to the pages which is copied form others or if your website is adult materials relate. Moreover, you can't click your own ads etc. All these things sre mentioned in Google AdSense terms and conditions page. Before using AdSense and earning much money, you must have to learn and follow AdSense program policy and terms and conditions. If you don't do then one day you may ban from Google AdSense.

कम्प्युटर समस्या र समाधान

अब फेरी केही कम्प्युटर सम्बन्धी कुरा गरौ । हाम्रो कम्प्युटरमा प्राय जसो आई पर्ने समस्याहरु बारे केही चर्चा र त्यो समस्याहरु समाधान गर्ने उपाय बारे केही लेखन गई रहेको छु , आशा छ तपाईंहरुलाई यो अबस्य पनि लाभदायक हुनेछ ।

१. Hidden फाइल नदेखिनु

कहिले काँही कुनै Virus वा द्वेषपूर्ण Script हरुको कारण तपाईंले Hidden Mode मा राख्नु भएको फाइल वा फोल्डर तपाईंले पछि " Show Hidden file and folder " ( Tools > Folder Options > View Menu > Hidden files and folders ) गर्दा पनि नदेखिन सक्छ । शायद तपाईंहरुले पनि यो समस्या भोग्नु भएको नै होला ।

यो समस्या समाधान गर्न
१ Start > Run र Regedit टाईप गरेर Enter गर्नुस् ।
२ त्यसपछि यो location सम्म जानुस् HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced\Folder\Hidden\SHOWALL
३ CheckedValue कि मा Double क्लिक गर्नुस्
४ र त्यहाँ Value Data लाई 1 राखिदिनुस् ।

बस तपाईंको काम सकियो ।

२. Drive लाई डबल क्लिक गर्दा New Window मा खोलिनु

कहिले काहिँ तपाईंले कुनै Drive लाई Double क्लिक गरेर खोल्न खोज्दा उक्त Drive त्यही window मा नखुलेर Automatically अर्कै Window मा खोलिन्छ । हामीलाई थाहा छ यो अबस्य पनि राम्रो लक्षण होइन किन भने उक्त Drive normal mode मा same window मा खोलिनु पर्थ्यो । यदी तपाईंले File मेनु को Tools मा गएर Folder Option लाई change गर्नु भएको भए अर्कै कुरा ..
किन Drive नयाँ window मा खोलिन्छ त ? यहाँ अबस्य पनि Virus अथवा अरु कुनै समस्या आएर नै हो

यसलाई समाधान गर्ने तरिका
पहिलो उपाय :१ Start > Run > र यहाँ regsvr32 /i shell32.dll टाईप गर्नुस्
२ ok गर्नुस् ।
३ तपाईंले यो message पाउनु हुन्छ
DllRegisterServer and DllInstall in shell32.dll succeeded
४ बस तपाईंको समस्या अब समाधान भयो

दोस्रो उपाय :
१ Start > Run > Regedit टाईप गर्नुस् र ओके गर्नुस् ।
२ अब HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT/Directory/Shell मा जानुस्
३ Default key लाई double क्लिक गर्नुस् र त्यहा none टाईप गर्नुस्
४ अब HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT/Drive/Shell मा जानुस्
५ Default key लाई double क्लिक गर्नुस् र त्यहा none टाईप गर्नुस्
६ ok गर्नुस् ।

तेस्रो उपाय :

यदी तपाईं regedit option चलाऊन चाहनु हुन्न भने यो उपाय गर्न सक्नु हुन्छ ।
१ Start > Run > र यो टाईप गर्नुस् reg add hkcr\drive\shell /ve /d none /f
२ ok गर्नुस् ।

आशा छ यि तीन उपाय तपाईंको लागि समाधान हुन सक्छ ।

३. आफ्नो कम्प्युटरलाई Virus हरुबाट Autorun Disable गरेर जोगाउने तरिका

धेरै Virus हरु कम्प्युटरमा सर्ने कारण तपाईंको कम्प्युटरमा कुनै CD वा pendrive राख्ने बित्तिकै Autorun हुनाले हो र यो Autoplay enable window को difault set भएर पनि हो ।
Autorun लाई Disable गर्ने तरिका :

१ Start > Run > regedit टाईप गर्नुस् र ओके
२ अब HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\ Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer मा जानुस्
३ NoDriveAutorun मा double क्लिक गर्नुस् र Hexadecimal मा Value "FF" वा Decimal मा Value 255 टाईप गर्नुस् ।
Note: यदी त्यहाँ NoDriveAutorun भन्ने कि छैन भने दाँया तिर right क्लिक गरेर new dword value मा क्लिक गरेर NoDriveAutorun टाईप गरेर Enter गर्नुस्
५ Registry window लाई exit गर्नुस् र कम्प्युटर लाई restart गर्नुस्

यो तरिका बाट तपाईंले Autorun लाई Disable गरेर Virus infected USB pendrive वा CD लाई Autorun हुन बाट रोक्न सक्नु हुन्छ र autorun.inf virus लाई Run हुन बाट जोगाउन सक्नु हुन्छ ।

४. "Show Desktop" Icon लाई कसरी Restore गर्ने ?

कहिले काहीँ गल्तीले तपाईंले "Show Desktop" Icon लाई shift+Delete गर्नु भयो यो सोचेर कि यो मात्र Shortcut हो । तर वास्तवमा त्यो नै orginal icon रहेछ भने के गर्नु हुन्छ ?
ShowDesktop Icon अरु Icon हरु भन्दा फरक हुन्छ र सामान्यतया यो Icon लाई फेरी Restore गर्न सकिदैन । यस्तो अवस्थामा तपाईंले यो तरिका अपनाउन सक्नु हुन्छ ।
१ Notepad लाई खोल्नुस् र तल लेखिएको code लाई कपि गरेर paste गर्नुस् ।
[Shell]
Command=2
IconFile=explorer.exe,3
[Taskbar]
Command=ToggleDesktop

२ अब फाइलको नाम ShowDesktop.scf राखी यो location मा लगेर save गरिदिनुस् ..
C:\Document and Settings\Username\Application Data\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch
३ कम्प्युटरलाई restart गर्नुस् ।

..

Nepalies model are really sexy,hot,glamore,beautiful,pretty,So there is no doubt that are good among the best then of other coubtry.Actress in Nepal are very beautiful and cute.i believe this is because, Nepal and India are 2 countries which are very near and due to migrations the culture and women in these countries are also similar and very sexy and to say Nepal Actress and Models are very hot and more sexy than Indians. So i leave it to you all to decide and so i have left up a few photos of these Sexy Nepali Model Girls and Nepal Women that you will certainly Love To See. Nepal is one of the most beautiful mountainous countries in the world but billions of People from the globe still don’t know Nepal’s political and geographical situation. Some of them are in confusion that whether it is an independent nation or a part of some country.The fashion in Nepal is very much popular in the whole Asia. Infact, wherever Nepalese citizen goes as a educational purpose or for some other purposes, people starts staring at them because of their taste of style. So never miss these beauties as they are very rare to find..

How to make romantic relationship with hot girls!!!!!
Introduce yourself to her. Since she's new, she probably doesn't know very many people. Just the simple act of introducing yourself can really make an impact on her.Approach her confidently, greet her, and tell her your name.Ask her how she is coming along in your school and if she needs any help adjusting.Make casual conversations whenever you see her. She may already have friends she talks to, but that doesn't mean she couldn't use one more. If you sit by her in a class, pass her in the halls, or wherever else you may see her and and have the opportunity to talk with her, do so. Make jokes (in good taste), ask questions, and tell interesting stories. Just get a conversation going and see where it leads.Make sure she has the right friends to talk to otherwise they will tell you all the weird or embarassing things you did earlier.Give her your phone number or ask for hers. Be casual about it. Tell her to text you sometime. If she gives you hers, text her later in the evening (not as soon as you get home) to give her your number. Every once in a while, text her to ask what's up and get a conversation going.Ask her out somewhere. You can either do this in person or on the phone, whichever you think would be easier for you. Invite along a couple mutual friends, or several of yours and ask her to invite several of hers, to make it less awkward. Make sure she knows if it is a date or not.Continue to hang out with her. Slowly, your friendship will continue to build. It could end up as a romantic relationship, or just really good friends.


कत्ति झुट बोल्न सक्या भन्या

-अनमिनको आंखामा छारो हालेर २० हजारलाइ प्रमाणिकरण गराउन सफल भएकोमा दम्भ देखाएका प्रचन्डले कार्यक्रममा लाजै पचाएर हामीसंग एक लाख सेना छ भनेर सफेद झुट बोल्दा सबै ट्वा परे ।


टेपकान्डवाट रन्थनिएका कामचलाउ प्रधानमन्त्री प्रचन्डले आज पत्रकार सम्मेलन गरेर टेपकान्ड चुनाव अगाडिको रणनीति मात्र रहेको र अहिले आफुहरु परिर्वतन भइसकेको दावी गरेछन । उनले जनसेनाकामाझ भनिएका कुरा अहिलेको वर्तमान शन्र्दभमा नमिल्ने दावी गर्दै भ्रममा नपर्न भन्दै अरुलाइ भ्रममा पार्ने अथक प्रयास गरेछन ।
जनयुद्ध कालमा आफुले त्यो भन्दा पनि उत्तेजक भाषणहरु गरेको रेकर्ड रहेको दावी गर्दै प्रचन्डले संविधान सभा र शान्ती प्रकृयामा आफुहरु इमान्दार रहेको दावी गरेछन । त्यसमा थप आफ्नो गल्तीको दोष अरुको टाउकोमा थोपरेझै उनले टेप सार्वजनिक गर्नेहरु सैनिक सर्वसत्ताबादको पक्षधर रहेको आरोप लगाएर आफुचांही पानी माथिको ओभानो पो बन्न खोजे ।
जम्मा सात/आठ हजार सेना रहेको र अनमिनको आंखामा छारो हालेर २० हजारलाइ प्रमाणिकरण गराउन सफल भएकोमा दम्भ देखाएका प्रचन्डले कार्यक्रममा लाजै पचाएर हामीसंग एक लाख सेना छ भनेर सफेद झुट बोल्दा सबै ट्वा परे । उनले आज धेरै पक्षमा झुट बोलेर विश्वका उत्कृष्ठ झुटा र छलीहरुको चयनको प्रकृया हुने हो भने त्यो पद उनैले पाउने गरी बोलेछन ।
उनले त्यो भिडियोले माओवादीलाइ कुनै फरक नपर्ने दावी गरे । पत्रकार सम्मेलन आयोजना गर्नुको मुख्य उद्धेश्य नै टेपकान्ड थियो । त्यसैले देखाइरहेको थियो त्यो टेप प्रकरणपछि माओवादी कत्तिको विचलीत भएको छ भन्ने

Draw an image

Click to view

WWW.NEPALIMODEL.TK --- Nepali model Gallery,Nepali fashion,Nepali Best web site हैन, संसार भरि नै मोडेलस् को निकै बिकास भएको छ, तर हाम्रो नेपाल म चाँही एक कदम अगाडि बदेछ । ।हेर्नुस् न यो SITE बहादुरि को नमुना होएन र ? किन ब्रा म आएको होला, नाङै आएको भएको भय भैहल्थियो नी .
Sure there are 10000 of bra companies in NEpal that models work for, but I hardly come across such models that make me NOT wanna buy the bra like this girl hehe... On a serious note, I don't think the model is working for any bra company.... well, even if she is, i bet she's working for its rival company and by posing in that particular bra, she is only trying to scare this company's potential customers away... Well done girl!!!:-)
565db7f635412d4d6685fedf3519888
गीत download गर्दा Download गर्न चाहनु भएको गीतमा Right Click गर्नुहोस् र Save Target As गर्नुहोस् free counters

Powered by Find IP Address

click me

Find out your current Age.
Month Date Year Hours



You have been living for:
In months:
In weeks:
In days:
In hours:
In minutes:
In seconds:
In Milliseconds:
Your next birthday will be in:

Earn by Sign Up

Map IP Address
Powered byIP2Location.com

NASA Image of the Day